Türkiye'nin Deprem Gerçeği

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Türkiye’de 1900 ile 2006 yılları arasında meydana gelen 90 büyük depremde, resmi verilere göre 82 bin 372 kişi öldü. Ülkede geçen yüz yıl yaşanan en şiddetli deprem, 1939 yılında Erzincan’da kaydedildi. 7.9 büyüklüğünde yaşanan ve 32 binin üzerinde vatandaşın kaybedildiği depremin ardından ilk kez önlemlerin tartışılmasına başlandı. Kayıpları azaltacak önlemlerin ciddi olarak ele alınmasına 1999 yılında 17 bin 480 kişinin öldüğü Marmara depremi sonrası başlayan Türkiye’de, bugüne kadar yapılanlar, genellikle yeterli görülmüyor.

Dünyanın deprem açısından en riskli kentleri sıralamasında istanbul 2., İzmir ise 20. kent olarak gösterildi.
Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Kandilli Rasathanesi ve Deprem Araştırma Enstitüsü verilerinden derlenen bilgiye göre, geçen yüzyılda ülkede kaydedilen en yıkıcı deprem, 26 Aralık 1939 tarihinde Erzincan’da meydana geldi.Kış şartlarının yaşandığı bu dönemde 32 bin 962 vatandaş hayatını kaybetti. Yurt çapında ulusal yasın ilan edildiği depremde, yıkımın yanı sıra soğukla da mücadele eden depremzedelere, ancak iki gün sonra ulaşılabildi. Bu trajedi, Türkiye’nin deprem gerçeğiyle yüzleşmesine yol açarken, ilk kez alınacak önlemlerin tartışılmasına başlandı. Ancak önlemler bazında kayda değer düzenlemeler gerçekleştirilemedi.

Bu depremin ardından 1942’de Tokat Erbaa’da 3 bin, 1943’de Samsun’un Ladik ilçesinde 4 bin, 1944’de Bolu Gerede-Çerkeş’de 3 bin 959 kişinin hayatına mal olan 7.2 aletsel büyüklüğünde 3 büyük deprem ülke gündemine girdi.

Muş Varto’da 1966 yılında 6.9 büyüklüğünde kaydedilen depremde 2 bin 396, Kütahya Gediz’de 1970 yılında 7.2 büyüklüğünde depremde 1086, Diyarbakır Lice’de 1975 yılında 6.6 büyüklüğündeki depremde de 2 bin 385 vatandaş kaybedildi.Sonraki yıllarda 1976 Van Muradiye’de 7.5 büyüklükte depremde 3 bin 840, 1983’de Erzurum ve Kars’ta 6.9 büyüklükte depremde 1155, 1992 Erzincan’da 6.8 büyüklükte depremde de 653 yurttaşını yitiren Türkiye, 1999 yılına gelindiğinde Marmara depremi olarak anılacak Gölcük merkezli 7.8 büyüklüğündeki sarsıntıyla uyandı. Bu depremde, resmi kayıtlara göre can kaybı bilançosu, 17 bin 480 oldu.

Aynı yıl içinde 763 vatandaş da, Düzce’de 7.5 büyüklüğünde meydana gelen depremde can verdi.

MARMARA MİLAT OLDU

Bulunduğu coğrafyada yüzde 90’ı deprem bölgesi olan Türkiye’de, önemli kentler birinci derece riskli kuşakta yer almasına karşın deprem gerçeğine ilişkin ciddi çalışmaların başlatılmasında, 1999 Marmara depremi milat oldu. Bu tarihten sonra önemli yasal düzenlemeler ele alınırken, devlet ve üniversiteler çalışmalarda başı çekti.

Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Deprem Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi Müdürü Prof. Dr. Zafer Akçığ, konuya ilişkin olarak yaptığı açıklamada, ülkede neredeyse deprem riski taşımayan bir yerin bulunmadığını kaydetti.

Prof. Dr. Akçığ, deprem açısından dünyanın en riskli merkezlerinden birisi olan Türkiye’nin çok önemli levha hareketlerinin etkisinde bulunduğunu belirterek, ”Dünyada en riskli kentler açısından yapılan sıralamada İstanbul 2., İzmir ise 20. sırada yer alıyor” dedi.

Türkiye açısından depremde asıl tehdidin bina güvenliği olduğuna işaret eden Prof. Dr. Akçığ, ”Deprem yıkar, ama nasıl yıkar? Japonya’da 7.5 büyüklüğünde depremde hiç bir şey yok, ama bizde 6’ya dayandığı anda olaylar meydana gelmeye başlıyor. 4.5 ile 6.5 arasındaki orta büyüklük dediğimiz depremlerde, hiç bir şey olmaması lazım. Japonya’da, ABD’de hiç bir şey olmuyor” dedi.

17 Ağustosun ardından depreme ilişkin alınması gereken önlemler konusunda ciddi anlamda çalışmaların başladığını ifade eden Prof. Dr. Akçığ, şunları kaydetti:

”Ayaklarımız yere basıyor ama yavaş basıyor. Belediyelerin bu konuda çok bilgi sahibi oldukları kanısında değilim hala. Birkaç belediye dışında. Öyle bir hareketi görmüyorum ben. Marmara depremine kadar hiç bir şey tartışılmadı. Ama yıkıcı depremler devam etti. Kimse o gerçeği görmedi, bunları bir türlü kabul ettiremedik. Yaşanmadıktan sonra acıyı kabul ettiremiyorsunuz. Ama 17 Ağustos, çok farklı boyutlarıyla geldi. Ben ona hep milat diyorum. Bir kere batıyı etkiledi, sanayiyi etkiledi, ölü sayısı minimum 15 bin oldu ve yetişmiş elemanlar kaybedildi. Deprem gerçeğiyle öyle tanıştık. Şimdi Türkiye’de bir takım hareketler var. Kamu ve üniversitelerin başını çekmeye çalıştığı. Ama topyekun bir seferberlik görmüyorum. Hala birçok güçlendirilmesi beklenen binalar, ara sıra boşaltılan okullar. O yatırımı göremiyorum.”

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